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# Basic math symbols

 Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition Example = equals sign equality 5 = 2+3 5 is equal to 2+3 ≠ not equal sign inequality 5 ≠ 4 5 is not equal to 4 ≈ approximately equal approximation sin(0.01) ≈ 0.01, x ≈ y means x is approximately equal to y > strict inequality greater than 5 > 4 5 is greater than 4 < strict inequality less than 4 < 5 4 is less than 5 ≥ inequality greater than or equal to 5 ≥ 4, x ≥ y means x is greater than or equal to y ≤ inequality less than or equal to 4 ≤ 5, x ≤ y means x is less than or equal to y ( ) parentheses calculate expression inside first 2 × (3+5) = 16 [ ] brackets calculate expression inside first [(1+2)×(1+5)] = 18 + plus sign addition 1 + 1 = 2 − minus sign subtraction 2 − 1 = 1 ± plus - minus both plus and minus operations 3 ± 5 = 8 and -2 ± minus - plus both minus and plus operations 3 ∓ 5 = -2 and 8 * asterisk multiplication 2 * 3 = 6 × times sign multiplication 2 × 3 = 6 ⋅ multiplication dot multiplication 2 ⋅ 3 = 6 ÷ division sign / obelus division 6 ÷ 2 = 3 / division slash division 6 / 2 = 3 — horizontal line division / fraction mod modulo remainder calculation 7 mod 2 = 1 . period decimal point, decimal separator 2.56 = 2+56/100 ab power exponent 23 = 8 a^b caret exponent 2 ^ 3 = 8 √a square root √a ⋅ √a = a √9 = ±3 3√a cube root 3√a ⋅ 3√a ⋅ 3√a = a 3√8 = 2 4√a fourth root 4√a ⋅ 4√a ⋅ 4√a ⋅ 4√a = a 4√16 = ±2 n√a n-th root (radical) for n=3, n√8 = 2 % percent 1% = 1/100 10% × 30 = 3 ‰ per-mille 1‰ = 1/1000 = 0.1% 10‰ × 30 = 0.3 ppm per-million 1ppm = 1/1000000 10ppm × 30 = 0.0003 ppb per-billion 1ppb = 1/1000000000 10ppb × 30 = 3×10-7 ppt per-trillion 1ppt = 10-12 10ppt × 30 = 3×10-10

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