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The Republic of India is a federation of 29 states and 7 union territories. It has a parliamentary government, organized under the Constitution of India.

The Indian Parliament consists of two Houses –Rajya Sabha  (Council of States/Upper House) and Lok Sabha (House of the People/Lower House). While the President is the head of the state, the Prime Minister, as head of the Central or Union government, exercises the most executive power.

The Central Government is formed by the party holding the majority of seats at the Lok Sabha. Each state is also governed by State Governments elected through State Legislative assembly elections. The Chief Minister is the Head of the State Government. The power to govern the states is divided between the state and the central governments.

The Central Government governs the country with the help of its numerous ministries,departments, and agencies.The Government consists of Cabinet Minister (who must be a member of either the Upper House or the Lower House), Minister of States (who reports to Cabinet of Ministers) and Minister of States (Independent Charge).


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Central government

The central government is defined as the political authority that governs an entire country or nation.In India, the government of the country is officially known as the Union Government. It is also known as the Central Government. It was established by the Constitution of India in 1950. The Central Government is the governing authority of the country’s 29 states and 7 union territories, which is collectively referred to as the Republic of India. The Central Government of India is located in New Delhi, the capital of the country.

Our Constitution provides a federal structure, wherein the central government and the state governments are independent in their functioning. But, in order to meet certain emergency situations or exigencies, certain unanimous decisions are made, which are controlled or directed by the Central Government for the national interest of the country.


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State Government

In a federal form of government, the state government is the government of a country’s subdivisions and shares political power with the national government.

In the Constitution of India, which is a sovereign socialist secular democratic republic, the country has three levels of governments: the Central, the States and the Union Territories, besides the third level of governments, comprising the panchayats in rural areas and municipalities in urban areas. In India, the state governments are the level of government below the central government. Each state of the country is governed by the state government. There are 29 state governments in our country, each of which is headed by the governor and the chief minister. The CM also heads the council of ministers.


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Local Government

Local government is the government of the village and district level. It is the government closest to the common people that involves in day-to-day life and attempt to resolve problems of ordinary citizens.Local government function at the basic level. It is the third level of government apart from union and state governments. It consists of  panchayats in rural areas and muncipalities in urban areas. They are elected directly or indirectly by the people.


Panchayati Raj

Following the 73rd Amendment, all states now have a uniform three tier Panchayati Raj structure as

Gram Panchayat − At the bottom level;

Mandal (also known as Block or Taluka) − Intermediary level; and

Zilla Panchayat − At the top level.



The 74th Constitutional Amendment act provides for three types of Municipalities:

 Nagar Panchayat for a transitional area between a rural and urban area.

 Municipal Council for a small urban area. 

Municipal Corporation for a large urban area.


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