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Gujarati Language

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Introduction of Gujarati Language

Gujarati is the Aryan Indo language and it is derived from a verbal communication called Old Gujarati which is the forebear language of the contemporary Rajasthani and Gujarati language. There are about 65.4 million orators of Gujarati lingo worldwide. Moreover it is considered as the 26th most spoken native language in the world. This language was initially known as the first language of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. Other more well-known celebrities whose first lingo was Gujarati were Narsinh Mehta, Dhirubhai Ambani and Muhammad Ali Jinnah.

 

History

The history of the language can be traced back to 12th century CE and can be divided into three periods:

The Old Period (10th-14th cent.): During this period, Parsis learned Sanskrit. Many of their religious texts were translated into Sanskrit from the Middle Persian versions. After that when Gujarat came under Muslim influence, Arabic and Persian was studied. Sanskrit studies declined and Parsis readily took to the Persian language. It was during this time, when Avestan and Pahlavi texts were translated into Gujarati with the use of existing Sanskrit translations.

The Middle Period (15th-17th cent.): Persian and later Urdu became the court language during this period and exerted a great influence on Gujarati. Gujarati was locally used by the Parsis in the villages of Surat. They translated religious texts into Gujarati, which had traces of Sanskrit, Persian and local dialects.

Modern Period (after 17th cent.): Traditions of British Romanticism and styles sneaked into literature. This period saw the westernization of Gujarati. This was the period when British were spreading and establishing themselves in India. Parsis readily took to English and started using some of its structural peculiarities, which led to the westernization of not only Gujarati, but also other local languages. The modern Gujarati having consonant final words was developed in this period. The end of 19th century saw quite a few milestones for the Gujarati language, which are states below.

  • 1840 - Personal diary composition: Nityanondh, Durgaram Mahetaji.
  • 1851 - First essay: Narmada Shankar Lalshankar Dave.
  • 1866 - First novel: Nandashankar Mehta.
  • 1866 - First autobiography: Narmada Shankar Lalshankar Dave.

 

Dialects

Gujarati language accepts a benchmark dialect speech which extends from Baroda to Ahmadabad. It resides many Ethnologue dialects and sub divisions which are as follows:-

Standard Gujarati – Nagari, Bombay Gujarati, Vadodari

Kathiyawadi – Halodi, Mer, Kharva, Khakari and  Sorathi

Gamthi – Pathani, Gramya, Machi, Anavla and Patidari

Parsi

Major dialects include a simplified grammar of the Gujarati language.

 

Writing System

Abugida is the Gujarati script, used for writing Gujarati as well as Kutchi. The major difference from Devnagari is the absence of horizontal line running above the letters. Gujarati can be written in Arabic as well Persian Scripts that is still carried out by natives in Kutch district of Gujarat.

 

school-chalao-gujarati-language2 image

 

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