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Overpopulation

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What is Overpopulation?

Overpopulation means that there are too many organisms of a certain species in a certain habitat. This means that the number of organisms living there is larger than the carrying capacity of the habitat. The habitat cannot support these numbers over time without hurting itself.

Overpopulation is an undesirable condition where the number of existing human population exceeds the carrying capacity of Earth. Overpopulation is caused by number of factors. Reduced mortality rate, better medical facilities, depletion of precious resources are few of the causes which results in overpopulation. It is possible for a sparsely populated area to become densely populated if it is not able to sustain life.

 

Causes of Overpopulation:-

Birth Rate:- The birth rate is still higher than the death rate. We have been successful in declining the death rates but the same cannot be said for birth rates.

Early Marriage and Universal Marriage System:- Even though legally the marriageable age of a girl is 18 years, the concept of early marriage still prevails and getting married at an young age prolongs the child bearing age.

Poverty and Illiteracy:- Another factor for the rapid growth of population is poverty. Impoverished families have this notion that more the number of members in the family, more will be the numbers to earn income. Some feel that more children are needed to look after them in their old age. Also hunger can be cause of death of their children and hence the need for more children.

Age old cultural norm:- Sons are the bread earners of the families in India. This age old thought puts considerable pressure on the parents to produce children till a male child is born.

Illegal migration:- Last but not the least, we cannot ignore the fact that illegal migration is continuously taking place from Bangladesh, Nepal leading to increased population density.

 

Effects of Overpopulation:-

Unemployment:- Generating employment for a huge population in a country like India is very difficult. The number of illiterate persons increases every year. Unemployment rate is thus showing an increasing trend.

Manpower utilisation:- The number of jobless people is on the rise in India due to economic depression and slow business development and expansion activities.

Pressure on infrastructure:- Development of infrastructural facilities is unfortunately not keeping pace with the growth of population. The result is lack of transportation, communication, housing, education, healthcare etc. There has been an increase in the number of slums, overcrowded houses, traffic congestion etc.

Resource utilisation:- Land areas, water resources, forests are over exploited. There is also scarcity of resources.

Decreased production and increased costs:- Food production and distribution have not been able to catch up with the increasing population and hence the costs of production have increased. Inflation is the major consequence of over population.

Inequitable income distribution:- In the face of an increasing population, there is an unequal distribution of income and inequalities within the country widen.

High Cost of Living:- As difference between demand and supply continues to expand due to overpopulation, it raises the prices of various commodities including food, shelter and healthcare. This means that people have to pay more to survive and feed their families.

 

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Solutions to Overpopulation:-

Better Education:- One of the first measures is to implement policies reflecting social change. Educating the masses helps them understand the need to have one or two children at the most. Similarly, education plays a vital role in understanding latest technologies like CloudDesktopOnline that are making huge waves in the world of computing. Families that are facing a hard life and choose to have four or five children should be discouraged.

Making People Aware of Family Planning:- As population of this world is growing at a rapid pace, raising awareness among people regarding family planning and letting them know about serious after effects of overpopulation can help curb population growth.

Tax Benefits or Concessions:- Government of various countries might have to come with various policies related to tax exemptions to curb overpopulation. One of them might be to waive of certain part of income tax or lowering rates of income tax for those married couples who have single or two children. As we humans are more inclined towards money, this may produce some positive results.

 

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