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Washing Machine

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What is Washing machine?

A washing machine is a machine that washes dirty clothes. It contains a barrel into which the clothes are placed. This barrel is filled with water, and then rotated very quickly to make the water remove dirt from the clothes. Most washing machines are made so that detergent can be put into the machine. These can help make the clothes cleaner.

A washing machine is a machine used to wash laundry, such as clothing and sheets. The term is mostly applied to machines that use water as opposed to dry cleaning or ultrasonic cleaners. Laundry detergent is frequently used to clean clothes, and is sold in either powdered or liquid form.


History of Washing machine:-

The first English patent under the category of Washing machines was issued in 1791. A drawing of an early washing machine appeared in the January 1752 issue of The Gentlemen's Magazine, a British publication. Jacob Christian Schaffer’s washing machine design was published 1767 in Germany. In 1782, Henry Soggier issued a British patent for a rotating drum washer, and in the 1790s Edward Beetham sold numerous "patent washing mills" in England. One of the first innovations in washing machine technology was the use of enclosed containers or basins that had grooves, fingers, or paddles to help with the scrubbing and rubbing of the clothes. The person using the washer would use a stick to press and rotate the clothes along the textured sides of the basin or container, agitating the clothes to remove dirt and mud. This crude agitator technology was hand-powered, but still more effective than actually hand-washing the clothes.

In 1862, a patented "compound rotary washing machine, with rollers for wringing or mangling" by Richard Lansdale of Pendleton, Manchester, was shown at the 1862 London Exhibition.

The first United States Patent titled "Clothes Washing" was granted to Nathaniel Briggs of New Hampshire in 1797. Because of the Patent Office fire in 1836, no description of the device survives. Invention of a washing machine is also attributed to Water Vliet Shaker Village, as a patent was issued to an Amos Larcom of Water Vliet, New York, in 1829, but it is not certain that Larcom was a Shaker. A device that combined a washing machine with a wringer mechanism did not appear until 1843, when Canadian John E. Turnbull of Saint John, New Brunswick patented a "Clothes Washer with Wringer Rolls."


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How work washing machine?

In a front-loading clothes washer:-

There's a fixed outer drum and a rotating inner drum with small holes around its edge. The drums are mounted on a horizontal axis. The inner drum is held to the frame of the machine by heavy-duty springs. That's because, when the clothes spin, they can make the drum shake violently; the springs help to absorb the vibrations. Hot and cold water enter through the detergent tray at the top. The inner drum turns back and forth. The plastic paddles on the inside help to slosh the clothes through the detergent and water held by the outer drum. An electric motor turns the inner drum, typically using a long rubber belt. A heating element heats the water as necessary. When the wash cycle is finished, the pump sucks the water away. The water empties down a tube to the drain.

In a top loader:-

You lift the lid on top and drop your clothes in from above. We're looking here from one side. Just like in a front-loading machine, there's an outer drum and an inner drum with holes in it, but they're mounted about a vertical axis. Hot and cold water enter through pipes near the top, passing through the detergent tray and flushing the detergent into the machine. During the wash cycle, a large plastic agitator turns around, moving your clothes through the water. Both drums remain stationary. The agitator is powered by an electric motor using a rubber belt. During the spin cycle, the same electric motor turns the inner drum at high speed, throwing water through its holes into the outer drum. When the wash is finished, the pump drains the water from the outer drum.


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Effects of Washing machine on environment:-

That common laundry soaps and fabric softeners aren’t environmentally friendly, as they wash chemicals into the water supply. This article on Tree hugger also draws our attention to the fact that laundry detergents contain APEs that damage the immune system and act as hormone disruptors.  Enzymes, bleaches, perfumes and colourants used in chemical detergents are absorbed into our bodies when they come into contact with our skin. Some of these toxic chemicals have even been linked to cancer, allergies and birth defects. Similarly, chlorine bleach contaminates drinking water, is caustic and can react with other cleaners to release toxic fumes. Phosphates in laundry detergents that enter aquatic systems, promote algal blooms, causing imbalances in the ecosystem. The Green Choices website sheds light on the dangers of using non-biodegradable laundry detergents. Those that do not break down, persist in the system, polluting our water bodies and finding their way into our drinking water supply.


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