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Train

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What is train?

Rail is the movement of passengers and goods using wheeled vehicles, made to run on railway tracks. In most countries, this transportation method helps trade and economic growth. Railways provide an energy-efficient way to transport material over land. The railway tracks are a large part of the system and provide smooth and hard surfaces on which the wheels of the train roll with a little friction. Also, the track spreads the weight of the train which means larger amounts can be carried than with trucks and roads.

Rolling stock in a rail transport system generally encounters lower frictional resistance than road vehicles, so passenger and freight cars (carriages and wagons) can be coupled into longer trains. The operation is carried out by a railway company, providing transport between train stations or freight customer facilities. Power is provided by locomotives which either draw electric power from a railway electrification system or produce their own power, usually by diesel engines. Most tracks are accompanied by a signalling system. Railways are a safe land transport system when compared to other forms of transport. Railway transport is capable of high levels of passenger and cargo utilization and energy efficiency, but is often less flexible and more capital-intensive than road transport, when lower traffic levels are considered.

 

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History of train:-

Pre-steam:-The earliest evidence of a railway was a 6-kilometre (3.7 mi) Diols wagon way, which transported boats across the Corinth isthmus in Greece during the 6th century BC. Trucks pushed by slaves ran in grooves in limestone, which provided the track element. The Diols operated for over 600 years.

In 1515, Cardinal Matthau’s Lang wrote a description of the Reissue, a funicular railway at the Hohensalzburg Castle in Austria. The line originally used wooden rails and a hemp haulage rope, and was operated by human or animal power.

By 1550, narrow gauge railways with wooden rails were common in mines in Europe. By the early 17th century, wooden wagon ways were common in England and Wales for transporting coal from mines to canal wharfs for transhipment to boats. The world's oldest working railway, built in 1758, is the Middleton Railway in Leeds. In 1764, the first gravity railroad in the United States was built in Lewiston, New York. The first permanent tramway was the Leaper Railroad in 1810.

The first iron plate railway, made with wrought iron plates on top of wooden rails, came into use in 1768. From the 1790s, iron edge rails began to appear in Great Britain. In 1803, William Jessop opened the Surrey Iron Railway in south London, arguably the world's first horse-drawn public railway. The invention of the wrought iron rail by John Birkin Shaw in 1820 allowed the short, brittle, and often uneven, cast iron rails to be extended to 15 feet (4.6 m) lengths. These were succeeded by steel in 1857.

Age of steam:-The development of the steam engine during the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain by Thomas Newcomen in 1712, initially for pumping water, spurred ideas for mobile steam locomotives that could haul heavy weights on tracks. James Watt's patented steam engines of 1769 were heavy low-pressure engines which were not suitable for use in locomotives. However, in 1804, using high-pressure steam, Richard Trevithick demonstrated the first locomotive-hauled train at Merthyr Tydfil, in South Wales.

Earliest British steam railways:-In 1811, John Blenkinsop designed the first successful and practical railway locomotive a rack railway worked by a steam locomotive between Middleton Colliery and Leeds on the Middleton Railway. His first locomotive, called Salamanca was built the following year. In 1825, George Stephenson built the Locomotion for the Stockton and Darlington Railway, north east England, which was the first public steam railway in the world. In 1829, he built the Rocket, which was entered in and won the Rain hill Trials.

In 1830, the first intercity route, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, was opened.

By the early 1850s, Great Britain had over 7,000 miles (11,000 km) of railway.

Early railroads in the US:-Double-deck trains. The railroad era in the United States began in 1830 when Peter Cooper's locomotive, Tom Thumb, first steamed along 13 miles (21 km) of Baltimore and Ohio railroad track. In 1833, the nation's second railroad ran 136 miles (219 km) from Charleston to Hamburg in South Carolina. Not until the 1850s, though, did railroads offer long distance service at reasonable rates.

The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad that opened in 1830 was the first to evolve from a single line to a network in the United States. By 1831, a steam railway connected Albany and Schenectady, New York, a distance of 16 miles (26 km), which was covered in 40 minutes.

Steam replacement by electric and diesel:-Experiments with electrical railways were started by Robert Davidson in 1838. The Gross-Lochtefeld Tramway was the first to use electricity fed to the trains end route, when it opened in 1881. Overhead wires were taken into use in the Madling and Hinterbruhl Tram in Austria in October 1883. The first conventional completely electrified railway mainline was the 106 km Valtellina line in Italy that was opened on 4 September 1902.

The 1973 oil crisis led to a change of mind set and most tram systems that had survived into the 1970s remain today. With the 1964 introduction of the Shinkansen high-speed rail in Japan, trains could again have a dominant position on intercity travel. During the 1970s, the introduction of automated rapid transit systems allowed cheaper operation. The 1990s saw an increased focus on accessibility and low-floor trains.

 

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Train safety tips:-

1. Trains are wider than the tracks; never sit on the edge of a station platform.

2. Listen carefully to directions from the train operator or conductor.

3. When you're at a crossing with more than one track, don't try to cross immediately after the end of the train passes by.

4. Cross at a designated and properly marked level crossing way crossing or bridge.

5. Do not walk and listen to your earphones on the tracks as it takes your concentration away.

6. Bikes, rollerblades, skates or skateboards must never be used on the tracks.

7. Don’t walk on railway track.

 

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