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Jet Aircraft

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What is Jet Aircraft?

Jet aircraft are aircraft with jet engines. Unlike propeller-powered aircraft, jet aircraft normally fly at altitudes as high as 100 to 1,5 meters, about 33 to 49,000 feet. At these altitudes, jet engines can achieve maximum efficiency over long distances. The engines in propeller powered aircraft achieve their maximum efficiency at much lower altitudes.

Frank Whittle, an English inventor and RAF officer, developed the concept of the jet engine in 1928, and Hans von Ohain in Germany developed the concept independently in the early 1930s. He wrote in February 1936 to Ernst Heinkel, who led the construction of the world's first turbojet aircraft and jet plane Heinkel He 178. However, it can be argued that the English engineer A. A. Griffith, who published a paper in July 1926 on compressors and turbines, also deserves credit.

 

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History of Jet Aircraft:-

In 1910 the Romanian inventor Henri Canada filed a patent on a jet propulsion system which used piston-engine exhaust gases to add heat to an otherwise pure air stream compressed by rotating fan blades in a duct.

The first aircraft to fly under rocket power was the Lappish Enter, in 1928. The Enter had previously been flown as a glider. The next year, in 1929, the Opel RAK.1 became the first purpose-built rocket plane to fly.

The "turbojet", was invented in the 1930s, independently by Frank Whittle and later Hans von Ohain. The first turbojet aircraft to fly was the Heinkel He 178 V1 first prototype of the German Air Force, the Luftwaffe, on August 27, 1939 in Rostock (Germany).

The first flight of a jet engine aircraft to come to popular attention was the Italian Caroni Camping N.1 motor jet prototype that flew on August 27; 1940.Campini had proposed the motor jet in 1932.

The British experimental Gloster E.28/39 first took to the air on May 15, 1941, powered by Sir Frank Whittle's turbojet. The United States produced the Bell XP-59A using two examples of a version of the Whittle engine built by General Electric, which flew on October 1, 1942.

The first operational jet fighter was the Messerschmitt Me 262, made by Germany during World War II, entered service on 19 April 1944 with Erprobungskommando 262 at Lichfield just south of Augsburg.

The Messerschmitt Me 262 had first flown on April 18, 1941, with initial plans drawn up by Dr Valdemar Voigt's design team in April 1939, but mass production did not start until early 1944 with the first squadrons operational that year, too late for a decisive effect on the outcome of the war. About the same time, mid 1944, the United Kingdom's Gloster Meteor was being committed to defence of the UK against the V-1 flying bomb – itself a pulsejet-powered aircraft  and direct ancestor of the cruise missile– and then ground-attack operations over Europe in the last months of the war. In 1944 Germany introduced into service the Arado AR 234 jet reconnaissance and bomber, though chiefly used in the former role, with the Heinkel He 162 Spats single-jet light fighter premiering as 1944 ended. USSR tested its own Bereznyak-Isayev BI-1 in 1942, but the project was scrapped by Joseph Stalin in 1945. The Imperial Japanese Navy also developed jet aircraft in 1945, including the Nakajima J9Y Kikka, a modified, and slightly smaller version of the Me 262 that had folding wings. By the end of 1945, the US had introduced their next jet fighter, the Lockheed P-80 Shooting Star into service and the UK its second fighter design, the de Havilland Vampire.

The US introduced the North American B-45 Tornado, their first jet bomber, into service in 1948.

On November 8, 1950, during the Korean War, United States Air Force Lt. Russell J. Brown, flying in an F-80, intercepted two North Korean MiG-15s near the Yalu River and shot them down in the first jet-to-jet dogfight in history.

The UK put the English Electric Canberra into service in 1951 as a light bomber. It was designed to fly higher and faster than any interceptor.

BOAC operated the first commercial jet service, from London to Johannesburg, in 1952 with the de Havilland Comet jetliner.

The Tu-144 supersonic transport was the fastest commercial jet plane at Mach 2.35 (1,555 mph, 2,503 km/h). It went into service in 1975, but soon stopped flying. The Mach 2 Concorde aircraft entered service in 1976 and flew for 27 years.

The fastest military jet plane was the SR-71 Blackbird at Mach 3.35 (2,275 mph, 3,661 km/h).

 

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