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Helicopter

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What is Helicopter?

A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors. This allows the helicopter to take off and land vertically, to hover, and to fly forward, backward, and laterally. These attributes allow helicopters to be used in congested or isolated areas where fixed-wing aircraft and many forms of VTOL aircraft cannot perform.

The English word helicopter is adapted from the French word helicoptere, coined by Gustave Ponton d'Amécourt in 1861, which originates from the Greek helix "helix, spiral, whirl, convolution" and pteron "wing". English language nicknames for helicopter include "chopper", "copter", "helo", "heli", and "whirlybird".

A helicopter is a type of aircraft that uses rotating, or spinning, wings called blades to fly. Unlike an airplane or glider, a helicopter has wings that move. Unlike a balloon, a helicopter is heavier than air and uses an engine to fly. A helicopter's rotating blades, or a rotor, allow it to do things an airplane cannot.

 

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History of Helicopter:-

Since around 400 BC, the Chinese had a flying top that was used as a children's toy. The flying top was made from bamboo and used the same method of spinning wings to fly up in the air. Later flying tops were made of feathers tied to a stick. Leonardo da Vinci first thought of a helicopter flown by a man in 1490, and drew pictures of his ideas. It was hundreds of years later (in the early 20th century) before anyone built one that could really fly. The first practical helicopters were built by Frenchman Louis Berget in 1935 and by German Henrich Fokker in 1936. To enable the aircraft to take off without forward ground travel, he produced the "Autodynamics" rotor head, which allowed the rotor to be spun up by the engine in the usual way but to higher than take-off p.m. at zero rotor incidence and then to reach operational positive pitch suddenly enough to jump some 20 fit (6 m) upwards. A Russian immigrant, Igor Sikorsky, built and perfected the first practical helicopter in America in 1939.

 

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How Helicopter work?

1. The blades are shaped like air foils (airplane wings with a curved profile) so they generate lift as they spin.

2. Each blade can swivel about a feathering hinge as it spins.

3. Vertical pitch links push the blades up and down, making them swivel as they rotate.

4. The pitch links move up and down according to the angle of the swash plates.

5. The rotor mast (a central axle connected to the engine by the transmission) makes the entire blade assembly rotate.

6. The rotor hub cap (above the rotors) helps to reduce aerodynamic drag.

7. There are two turbo-shaft jet engines, one on either side of the rotors. If one engine fails, there should still be enough power from the other engine to land the helicopter safely.

 

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Parts of a Helicopter:-

1. Main rotor:-The main rotor serves to provide lift and propulsion to the helicopter.

2. Fuselage:-The fuselage holds the aircraft together and accommodates passengers and cargo, as appropriate.

3. Cockpit:-The cockpit, at the front end of the fuselage, is the control and command centre, where the pilots sit and all the instrumentation is located.

4. Cabin:-The cabin serves to accommodate passengers and cargo.

5. Landing skids:-The skids serve to stand the helicopter while on the ground.

6. Tail boom:-The tail boom holds the tail rotor for stabilising the aircraft.

7. Tail rotor:-The tail rotor prevents the helicopter from spinning as well as turns the aircraft.

 

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