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What is Bus?

A bus is a large wheeled vehicle meant to carry many different persons along with the driver. It is larger than a car. The name is a shortened version of omnibus, which means "for everyone" in Latin. Buses used to be called omnibuses, but people now simply call them "buses".

Buses are an important part of public transport in places all over the world. Many people who do not have cars, especially the third world countries, use buses to get around. Buses make it easy for them to get to where they want to go.

A place on a sidewalk/pavement where people wait for a local bus is called a bus stop. A building where people wait for a long-distance bus or where lots of buses meet is called a bus station.

Buses may be used for scheduled bus transport, scheduled coach transport, school transport, private hire, or tourism; promotional buses may be used for political campaigns and others are privately operated for a wide range of purposes, including rock and pop band tour vehicles.

 

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History of Bus:-

Steam buses:-Regular intercity bus services by steam-powered buses were pioneered in England in the 1830s by Walter Hancock and by associates of Sir Goldsworthy Gurney, among others, running reliable services over road conditions which were too hazardous for horse-drawn transportation.

The first mechanically propelled omnibus appeared on the streets of London on 22 April 1833.

However, the heavy road tolls imposed by the turnpike trusts discouraged steam road vehicles and left the way clear for the horse bus companies, and from 1861 onwards, harsh legislation virtually eliminated mechanically propelled vehicles from the roads of Great Britain for 30 years, the Locomotive Act of that year imposing restrictive speed limits on "road locomotives" of 5 mph in towns and cities, and 10 mph in the country.

Trolleybuses:-In parallel to the development of the bus was the invention of the electric trolleybus. Sir William first proposed the idea in an article to the Journal of the Society of Arts in 1881 as an ". arrangement by which an ordinary omnibus would have a suspender thrown at intervals from one side of the street to the other, and two wires hanging from these suspenders; allowing contact rollers to run on these two wires, the current could be conveyed to the tram-car, and back again to the dynamo machine at the station, without the necessity of running upon rails at all."

The first such vehicle, the Electro mote, was made by his brother Dr. Ernst Werner von Siemens and presented to the public in 1882 in Halensee, Germany. Although this experimental vehicle fulfilled all the technical criteria of a typical trolleybus, it was dismantled in the same year after the demonstration.

Max Schliemann opened a passenger-carrying trolleybus in 1901 near Dresden, in Germany. Although this system operated only until 1904, Schliemann had developed what is now the standard trolleybus current collection system. In the early days, a few other methods of current collection were used. Leeds and Bradford became the first cities to put trolleybuses into service in Great Britain on 20 June 1911.

Motor buses:-In Siege land, Germany, two passenger bus lines ran briefly, but unprofitably, in 1895 using a six-passenger motor carriage developed from the 1893 Benz Victoria. Another commercial bus line using the same model Benz omnibuses ran for a short time in 1898 in the rural area around Llandudno, Wales.

Daimler also produced one of the earliest motor-bus models in 1898, selling a double-decker bus to the Motor Traction Company which was first used on the streets of London on 23 April 1898. With the success and popularity of this bus, Daimler expanded production, selling more buses to companies in London and, in 1899, to Stockholm and Speyer. Daimler also entered into a partnership with the British company Milnes and developed a new double-decker in 1902 that became the market standard.

The first mass-produced bus model was the B-type double-decker bus, designed by Frank Searle and operated by the London General Omnibus Company – it entered service in 1910, and almost 3,000 had been built by the end of the decade. Hundreds saw military service on the Western Front during the First World War.

The Yellow Coach Manufacturing Company, which rapidly became a major manufacturer of buses in the US, was founded in Chicago in 1923 by John D. Hertz. General Motors purchased a majority stake in 1925 and changed its name to the Yellow Truck and Coach Manufacturing Company.

The AEC Route master, developed in the 1950s, was a pioneering design and remains an icon of London to this day.

 

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Types of Bus:-

Coach / Motor coach - A bus that is used for driving long distances with as much comfort as possible and more room. It has fewer doors than a city bus.

School bus - A bus that takes people to their school or university. In America school buses are yellow while in other countries they may be different.

Shuttle buses - a bus that drives between places without many stops. It is often used for sport events and other places where lots of people meet, and at airports.

Minibus - A bus that is smaller than normal buses. It can carry about 8 to 25 people.

Double decker bus - A bus that has two floors (decks). It can carry about 70 people.

Low-floor bus - A bus that is nearer the ground than other buses so you can get in and out more easily. This type is often used in cities. The floor may get lower when the bus stops and higher when it moves.

Trolleybus - A bus that gets its energy from electric cables above the street, not from petroleum fuel.

Articulated bus - A bus that can bend in the middle so that it can be long and still move in small streets.

Guided bus - A bus that is guided on rails like a train but is used on normal streets.

Often it can also be used like a normal bus.

Neighbourhood bus - It is like a school bus.

Training bus - A bus that is used for new drivers to practice with. It might not be safe for passengers and might have been changed so a teacher can easily help the new driver.

Gyro bus - A gyro bus is a special bus which does not use a normal engine. It has a big flywheel of steel or other materials (weighing about one ton) rotating at very high speed (RPM). By rotating at such high speed, the flywheel stores large amounts of kinetic energy.

Hybrid bus - A bus that has two engines, for example a fuel engine and an electric engine.

Police bus - A bus that is used by the police to transport a large number of policemen.

Off-road bus - A bus that is made to be used beyond normal roads, often used by the Army.

Open-top bus - A bus that has no roof, often used for tourism.

 

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