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Election Process



India is a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic. Democracy runs like a golden thread in the social, economic and political fabric woven by the Constitution given by ‘We, the People of India’ unto ourselves. The concept of democracy as visualised by the Constitution pre-supposes the representation of the people in Parliament and State legislatures by the method of election. The Supreme Court has held that democracy is one of the inalienable basic features of the Constitution of India and forms part of its basic structure. The Constitution of India adopted a Parliamentary form of government. Parliament consists of the President of India and the two Houses — Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha. India, being a Union of states, has separate state legislatures for each state. State legislatures consist of the Governor and two Houses — Legislative Council and Legislative Assembly — in seven states, namely, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Bihar, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh, and of the Governor and the state Legislative Assembly in the remaining 22 states. Apart from the above, two out of the seven Union Territories, namely, National Capital Territory of Delhi and Puducherry, also have their Legislative Assemblies.






Constituencies are areas marked for people to elect their representatives from. In India, each constituency has roughly a similar size of the population, meaning the number ofcvaries from state to state. This also implies that the number of seats (example, in Lok Sabha) is in proportion to the population of the state.

The Constitution puts a limit on the size of the Lok Sabha at 550 elected members, apart from two members who can be nominated by the President to represent the Anglo-Indian community. There are also provisions to ensure the representation of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes with reserved constituencies, where only candidates from these communities can stand for election. A legislation to reserve one third of the seats reserved for female candidates was introduced in the Lok Sabha in early 1999. Before the bill could be considered and passed by the Parliament, the Lower House was dissolved.




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The constituencies have people who vote for their representatives or can even stand for elections themselves. "Electoral Rolls"n are the lists of voters in one constituency. In India, there is a universal franchise by law. Meaning, that every individual, above the age of 18 has a right to vote and choose his representative. And so all their names should appear in their respective electoral rolls.



India allows every eligible person to stand for elections, as long as they have a ‘ticket’. A political party registers for elections and individuals file their nomination papers too. Then, a person each gets a ‘ticket’ from the party they’re representing and he can formally contest the elections. Every party has a symbol that represents them, for example BJP has a lotus flower.


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Each party contesting elections has a particular ideology and set of policies. They need to hold political campaigns for around two weeks in order to publicize them and gather voters. Ideally, they need to do this ethically by convincing voters with good policies and plans. In India, they’re given a particular limit of expenditure, beyond which they can’t spend more money.






This day is finally when voters vote for their choice of representative in election booths. Earlier, people used to vote by ballot paper, but nowadays, they use EVM (electronic voting machines) by simply pressing a button on their party symbol. The votes are them later counted and the candidate with the majority of the votes wins the election.



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