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The Parliament of India is the supreme legislative authority in the country and it is bicameral. It is divided into two houses – the Rajya Sabha, which is the Council of States, and the Lok Sabha, which is the House of the People.

The Lok Sabha is referred to as the Lower house and the Rajya Sabha is referred to as the Upper house. The members of the Parliament are either elected by the people of India or nominated by the President of India.

The Legislature or Parliament is headed by the President of India. The term of Rajya Sabha is six years (one-third of its members retire every two years and are replaced by newly elected members) and the term of Lok Sabha is five years. The Lok Sabha can be dissolved.  In Rajya Sabha, 238 members are elected by the State and 12 members are nominated by the President for their contribution in the fields of art, literature, science and social services. In Lok Sabha, 543 members are elected by the voting population of India and two Anglo Indians are elected by the President of India. The Speaker, who is the Presiding Officer of the Lok Sabha, is elected by its members.  The Vice President of India, who is the ex-officio Chairman of Rajya Sabha, is elected by the members of an electoral college consisting of the members of both the Houses of Parliament.



Structure and Facts

The Parliament of India or the legislature is divided into two houses namely the upper and the lower house or two sabhas namely the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha. The Lok Sabha is also called the Lower house and the Rajya Sabha can be addressed as the Upper house .


Lok Sabha

The Lok Sabha, also known as the Lower House, is the “House of the People”. It comprises 543 members who are elected from the (parliamentary) constituencies and two members of Anglo-Indian community who are nominated by the President of India. The citizens of India directly elect the 543 members exercising the universal adult franchise. All the Indian citizens, who are aged 18 years and above, irrespective of their gender, caste, religion or race, are eligible to vote to elect their representatives to the Parliament. The requirement for being elected in the Lok Sabha is that the person must be a citizen of India, should be mentally sound and should not be bankrupt and criminally convicted. The minimum age for membership of the Lok Sabha is 25 years. Out of the 543 parliamentary constituencies, 131 seats belong to the reserved category, 84 seats are reserved for the people belonging to Scheduled Casts (SC) and 47 seats are reserved for Scheduled Tribes (ST) categories.


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Rajya Sabha

Rajya Sabha is the Upper House of Parliament. It has not more than 250 members. Members of Rajya Sabha are not elected by the people directly but indirectly by the Legislative Assemblies of the various States. Every State is allotted a certain number of members. No member of Rajya Sabha can be under 30 years of age. There are at present 245 members in Rajya Sabha.
The Vice-President of India is the ex-officio Chairman of Rajya Sabha. He is elected by the members of an electoral college consisting of members of both Houses of Parliament. Rajya Sabha also elects one of its members to be the Deputy Chairman.
Chairman of Rajya Sabha : Mohammad Hamid Ansari ,Since 25 August 2012
Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha : P. J. Kurien, Congress,Since 21 August 2012


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Parliament House 

The building was designed by two famous architects— Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker—who were responsible for the planning and construction of New Delhi.

The Foundation Stone of Parliament House was laid on the 12th February, 1921 by H.R.H. The Duke of Connaught. The construction of the building took six years and the opening ceremony was performed on the 18th January, 1927 by the then Governor-General of India, Lord Irwin. The cost of construction was Rs. 83 lakhs.The building has twelve gates among which Gate No. 1 on the Sansad Marg is the main gate.


Parliament Budget 

The ‘Annual Financial Statement’, laid before both the Houses of Parliament constitutes the Budget of the Union Government. This statement takes into account a period of one financial year. The financial year commences in India on 1st April each year. The statement embodies the estimated receipts and expenditure of the Government of India for the financial year.


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Outstanding Parliamentarian Award 

An award for Outstanding Parliamentarian was instituted by the Indian Parliamentary Group in the year 1995. The First and Second awards for the years 1995 and 1996 were conferred on Shri Chandrashekhar and Shri Somnath Chatterjee respectively. The Third and Fourth awards for the years 1997 and 1998 were conferred on Shri Pranab Mukherjee and Shri S. Jaipal Reddy respectively. The Fifth, Sixth, Seventh and Eighth awards for the years 1999, 2000, 001 and 2002 were conferred on Shri L. K. Advani, Shri Arjun Singh, Shri Jaswant Singh and Dr. Manmohan Singh respectively.


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Parliamentary Committees 

Estimates Committee
Committee on Empowerment of Women
Committee on Welfare of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes
Public Accounts Committee
Public Undertakings Committee
Railway Convention Committee


Top 10 Facts about the Indian Parliament

1. The Parliament of India is circular which represents “Continuity”
2. Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha are horse shoe in shape.
3. Lok Sabha carpet is green in color which represents that India is an Agriculture land and the people here are elected from grass root level, Rajya Sabha carpet is red in color which denotes royalty and also tells about the sacrifice done by the freedom fighters.
4. The library in the Indian Parliament is the second largest in India.
5. Circumference of Parliament is 1/3rd of a mile i.e. 536.33m
6. The first hour (i.e. between 11 to 12 noon) is known as the Question Hour. During this MPs put forward questions about the policies, government and different bills.
7. Around 12 noon MPs can discuss any important topic with prior notice to the Speaker. This is known as Zero Hour.
8. President's office is in Room number 13 of Parliament ( 13 no. is not so unlucky in this case).
9. Parliament canteen is the cheapest in the country with 3 course veg meal in 61 Rs and Chicken Biryani for Rs. 51 (Highest amount in the list)
10. Voting in Parliament is done electronically for the questions asked, amendments, new bills etc. There is a voting console, a system with colored buttons, green for a Yes, Red for No and Yellow for abstain.

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