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Humayun’s Tomb (Delhi)

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Humayns’s tomb stands in Delhi. It is a Maqbara. It is also known as a Maqbara e Humayun. This Tomb made by Humayun's son Akbar in 1569-70. Humayun’s Tomb was designed by Mirak Mirza Ghiyas. This Tomb is the first garden-tomb on the Indian subcontinent. This Tomb is also called Purana Qila (Old Fort).This Tomb is the first structure to use red sandstone at such a scale.

On 20 January 1556, after the death of Hamayun’s body first took in the Purana Qila at Delhi. This Tomb was built on order his first wife. Then it’s begun to build in 1565, after the nine years of Humayun’s death. It’s taken 8 years to complete. its cost is 1.5 million rupees at the time. It’s all cost paid by Humayus’s wives. Humayun to Abd al-Qadir Bada'uni, one of the few contemporary historians to mention its construction, the architect of the tomb was the Persian architect, Mirak Mirza Ghiyas (also referred to as Mirak Ghiyathuddin) who was brought from Herat (northwest Afghanistan), and had previously designed several buildings in Herat, Bukhara (now Uzbekistan), and others elsewhere in India. Ghiyas, to whom the mausoleum's exquisite design is attributed, was chosen to be the architect by Empress Bega Begum. During the Partition of India, in August 1947 the Purana Qila together with Humayun's Tomb, became major refugee camps for Muslims migrating to the newly founded Pakistan, and was later managed by the government of India. These camps stayed open for about five years, and caused considerable damage not only to the extensive gardens, but also to the water channels and the principle structures. Eventually, to avoid vandalism, the cenotaphs within the mausoleum were encased in brick. In the coming years, the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), took on responsibility for the preservation of heritage monuments in India, and gradually the building and its gardens were restored. Until 1985, four unsuccessful attempts were made to reinstate the original water features.

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The high rubble built enclosure is entered through two lofty double-storeyed gateways on the west and south, 16 metres high with rooms on either side of the passage and small courtyards on the upper floors. Six-sided stars that adorn the main gateway on the west are also seen on the iwan of the main tomb structure, though it has been used as ornamental cosmic symbol. The mosque usually present alongside royal tombs, like the Taj, is conspicuously missing from the enclosure, which has only one other structure, the tomb of Emperor's favourite barber, now commonly known as Nai ka Gumbad. The tomb built of rubble masonry and red sandstone, uses white marble as a cladding material and also for the flooring, lattice screens, door frames, eaves and for the main dome. It stands on a vaulted terrace eight-metre high and spread over 12,000m². It is essentially square in design, though chamferred on the edges to appear octagonal, to prepare ground for the design of the interior structure. The plinth made with rubble core has fifty-six cells all around, and houses over 100 gravestones. Plus, the entire base structure is on a raised platform, a few steps high. Inspired by Persian architecture; the tomb reaches a height of 47 metres (154 ft) and is 91 metres (299 ft) wide, and was the first Indian building to use the Persian double dome on a high neck drum, and measures 42.5 metres (139 ft), and is topped by 6 metres (20 ft) high brass finial ending in a crescent, common in Timurid tombs. The double or 'double-layered' dome, has its outer layer which supports the white marble exterior, while the inner part gives shape to the cavernous interior volume. As a contrast to the pure white exterior dome, rest of the building is made up of red sandstone, with white and black marble and yellow sandstone detailing, to relieve the monotony.

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