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Toaster

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What is Toaster?

A toaster, or a toast maker, is an electric small appliance designed to brown sliced bread by exposing it to radiant heat, thus converting it into toast. Toasters can toast multiple types of sliced bread products. Invented in Scotland in 1893, it was developed over the years, with the introduction of an automatic mechanism to stop the toasting and pop the slices up.

The most common household toasting appliances are the pop-up toaster and the toaster oven. Bread slices are inserted into slots in the top of a pop-up toaster, which make toast from bread in one to three minutes by using electric heating elements. Toasters have a control to adjust how much the appliance toasts the bread. Toaster ovens have a hinged door in the front that opens to allow food items to be placed on a rack, which has heat elements above and below the grilling area. Toaster ovens function the same as a small-scale conventional oven. Toaster ovens typically have settings to toast bread and a temperature control for use of the appliance as an oven.

 

History of Toaster:-

Before the development of the electric toaster, sliced bread was toasted by placing it in a metal frame or on a long-handled toasting-fork and holding it near a fire or over a kitchen grill. Simple utensils for toasting bread over open flames appeared in the early 19th century. The first electric bread toaster was invented by Alan Macmaster’s in Edinburgh, Scotland in 1893.

The primary technical problem at the time was the development of a heating element which would be able to sustain repeated heating to red-hot temperatures without either breaking or becoming too brittle. A similar technical challenge had recently been surmounted with the invention of the first successful incandescent lightbulbs by Joseph Swan and Thomas Edison. However, the light bulb took advantage of the presence of a vacuum, something that couldn't be used with the toaster.

Macmaster's toaster was commercialized by the Crompton, Stephen J. Cook & Company of the UK as a toasting appliance called the Eclipse. Early attempts at producing electrical appliances using iron wiring were unsuccessful, because the wiring was easily melted and a serious fire hazard. Meanwhile, electricity was not readily available, and when it was, mostly only at night.

The problem of the heating element was solved in 1905 by a young engineer named Albert Marsh who designed an alloy of nickel and chromium, which came to be known as Nichrome.

The first US patent application for an electric toaster was filed by George Schneider of the American Electrical Heater Company of Detroit in collaboration with Marsh. One of the first applications the Hoskins Company had considered for chromel was toasters, but eventually abandoned such efforts to focus on making just the wire itself.

The first commercially successful electric toaster was introduced by General Electric in 1909 for the GE model D-12.

 

                                                                           school-chalao-toaster1 image

 

How Toaster work?

Electrical energy flows into the toaster from a wire plugged into the domestic electricity supply.

The electric current flows through a series of thin filaments connected together but spaced widely enough apart to toast the whole bread surface.

The filaments are so thin that they glow red hot when the electricity flows through them.

Like a series of small radiators, the filaments beam heat toward the bread in the toaster.

The steady supply of heat rapidly cooks the bread. There are filaments on each wall of the toaster so the two sides of the bread cook at the same time.

 

                                                                    school-chalao-toaster2 image

 

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