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Air Conditioning

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What is Air conditioning?

Air conditioning (known as AC) is the process of removing heat from a confined space, thus cooling the air, and removing humidity. Air conditioning can be used in both domestic and commercial environments. This process is used to achieve a more comfortable interior environment, typically for humans; however, air conditioning is also used to cool/dehumidify rooms filled with heat-producing electronic devices, such as computer servers, power amplifiers, and even to display and store artwork.

An air conditioner is a system or a machine that treats air in a defined, usually enclosed area via a refrigeration cycle in which warm air is removed and replaced with cooler and more humid air.

In construction, a complete system of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning is referred to as HVAC. Whether in homes, offices or vehicles, its purpose is to provide comfort by altering the properties of the air, usually by cooling the air inside.

Air conditioners often use a fan to distribute the conditioned air to an occupied space such as a building or a car to improve thermal comfort and indoor air quality. Electric refrigerant-based AC units range from small units that can cool a small bedroom, which can be carried by a single adult, to massive units installed on the roof of office towers that can cool an entire building.

 

History of Air conditioning:-

In 1902, the first modern electrical air conditioning unit was invented by Willis Carrier in Buffalo, New York. After graduating from Cornell University, Carrier found a job at the Buffalo Forge Company. While there, he began experimenting with air conditioning as a way to solve an application problem for the Sackett-Wilhelm Lithographing and Publishing Company in Brooklyn, New York. The first air conditioner, designed and built in Buffalo by Carrier, began working on 17 July 1902.

Designed to improve manufacturing process control in a printing plant, Carrier's invention controlled not only temperature but also humidity. Carrier used his knowledge of the heating of objects with steam and reversed the process. Instead of sending air through hot coils, he sent it through cold coils. The air was cooled, and thereby the amount of moisture in the air could be controlled, which in turn made the humidity in the room controllable. The controlled temperature and humidity helped maintain consistent paper dimensions and ink alignment. Later, Carrier's technology was applied to increase productivity in the workplace, and The Carrier Air Conditioning Company of America was formed to meet rising demand. Over time, air conditioning came to be used to improve comfort in homes and automobiles as well. Residential sales expanded in the 1950s.

 

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How work Air conditioning?

Air conditioners use chemicals that easily convert from a gas to a liquid and back again. This chemical is used to transfer heat from the air inside of a home to the outside air.

The machine has three main parts. They are a compressor, a condenser and an evaporator.

Compressor - Refrigerant is drawn from the evaporator and pumped to the condenser by the compressor.

Condenser - The high-pressure refrigerant vapour releases heat through the condenser coils as it condenses into liquid refrigerant. Making it easier to vaporize.

Evaporator - The low-pressure liquid refrigerant absorbs heat as it vaporizes in the evaporator coils. The process described above is the Refrigerant System or Refrigerant Cycle. It is the system on which virtually all modern Air-Conditioning and refrigeration is based.

 

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Effects on human health of Air conditioning:-

Air conditioning has as much influence on human health as any generic heating system. Poorly maintained air-conditioning systems (especially large, centralized systems) can occasionally promote the growth and spread of microorganisms such as Legionella pneumophila, the infectious agent responsible for Legionnaire's disease. Air conditioning can have a positive effect on sufferers of allergies and asthma.

In serious heat waves, air conditioning can save the lives of the elderly. Some local authorities have even set up public cooling canters for the benefit of those without air conditioning at home.

 

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Impacts on environment of Air conditioning:-

Innovation in air conditioning technologies continues, with much recent emphasis placed on energy efficiency. Production of the electricity used to operate air conditioners has an environmental impact, including the release of greenhouse gases.

Cylinder unloaders are a method of load control used mainly in commercial air conditioning systems. On a semi-hermetic (or open) compressor, the heads can be fitted with unloaders which remove a portion of the load from the compressor so that it can run better when full cooling is not needed. Unloaders can be electrical or mechanical.

Most refrigerant used for air conditioning contribute to global warming, and many also deplete the ozone layer. CFCs, HCFCs, and HFCs are potent greenhouse gases when leaked to the atmosphere.

 

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